In the Dark About Dark Matter

Extract from Science-Daily

Dark Matter Mystery Deepens 

ScienceDaily (Oct. 17, 2011)— Like all galaxies, our Milky Way is home to a strange substance called dark matter. Dark matter is invisible, betraying its presence only through its gravitational pull. Without dark matter holding them together, our galaxy’s speedy stars would fly off in all directions. The nature of dark matter is a mystery — a mystery that a new study has only deepened.

“After completing this study, we know less about dark matter than we did before,” said lead author Matt Walker, a Hubble Fellow at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. …………………….

Previous to this, from NASA:

Aug. 21, 2006 RELEASE : 06-297

  NASA Finds Direct Proof of Dark Matter

Dark matter and normal matter have been wrenched apart [not the words everyone would employ in the circumstances – Ed.] by the tremendous collision of two large clusters of galaxies. The discovery, using NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes, gives direct evidence for the existence of dark matter.

“This is the most energetic cosmic event, besides the Big Bang, which we know about,” said team member Maxim Markevitch of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. …………

Obviously they haven’t heard about the rugby finals but what they are talking about is rugby  where the ball traces a trajectory not predicted by the known parameters.  Invisible player.

The current overwhelming majority of our universe, it seems, is, literally, invisible – detectable only by the effects it produces. That’s if the observed effects aren’t produced by something someone failed to factor in.

All the measurements suggest that invisible rubber bands  are doing things out there.  The best guess at present is that the controlling effect is coming from something that has the gravitational effect of stupendous quantities of matter — here, there, and everywhere(?)

It’s enough to incline a person towards lying on the floor and laughing uproariously.

If you were Sherlock Holmes or if you were Doctor Watson you might right now be saying something like: “Anti-matter has gravitational properties the same as matter, but no-one thinks it is anti-matter because the anti-matter should long since have encountered matter and everything should have ceased to exist”.  “It’s not anti-light because there is strictly no such object as an anti-photon [light can cancel, but that has to do with wave behaviour, not particle behavior] and besides, light has zero mass”.  “It isn’t ‘spent’ light – if indeed light  ever ‘tires’, which is debated — because light has zero mass”.     “Perhaps it is a sort of anti-universe spread throughout the universe, where everything travels faster than the speed of light and time goes backwards?” “Yes, Watson, but according to Einstein’s equations, nothing with mass can attain the speed of light.”  No mass, no gravitation.  “So, why does light bend slightly when travelling past large objects?”  “Watson, confound it, you know that has to do with Einsteinian Relativity and we don’t wish to make fools of ourselves here.    Light is essential to the definition of the universe, it is not defined by the universe.”

“So, why is it dark? “  “Because we are in the dark room, developing these prints for the C.I.B.”

“I mean, at night.”  “Ah, Watson.  You mean, the observable phenomenon of darkness, implying, absence of light?”

“Yes; but that won’t do either, Holmes.  You know we are in an expanding universe, thousands of millions of years old, with almost countless light sources.  Shouldn’t Space out there be filled with light?  And shouldn’t the light be constantly reaching the earth, day and night?”

“If everything is moving away from everything else at a great rate, the light is constantly being diluted by darkness.  We have a dark night sky because the stars have withdrawn from us.”

“Yet, as far as we know, light, although it can change in wavelength and therefore in colour, is tireless and never stops travelling.  Countless billions of stars – shouldn’t the night sky be solid with them?”

“You make a point.  Could there be any other cause of a dark night sky, other than expansion?”

“As you know, Holmes, to explain this proposed dark matter, it has been suggested that Space abounds in subatomic particles, heavier than light, but not entirely dissimilar to it – quarks, bosons, wimps, gluons ……”

“Perhaps Space is expanding in a way that doesn’t allow the light to stick to it?   That’s why we need more gluons.  Best theory yet.   Sailing upon the tranquil celestial sea  with a wimp, a quark, and a Higgs’s boson.  Lestrade, by this photograph, looks as though he has collared a few of them.”

“In the night?”

“It’s the best time to collar wimps, quarks, and especially, Higgs’s boson .”

————————————————————————————————————

Question – one that Conan Doyle might have asked, had he lived in our times.  How, but how, can the bulk of the universe be invisible and mysterious?

The short answer – who knows?  Here is a longer answer, which is a digression. The physical universe is not infinite.  It was created at the beginning of time and will dismaterialize (with indescribable noise and the appearance of universal fire) on the day time ends.  “Heaven and Earth shall pass away: my word shall not pass away.”

Items such as Space, light, and darkness, were therefore created –not in the midst of nothing, but in the midst of Eternity.  Eternity is a not defined in terms of physical space and time, nor of light and darkness.

Thus, it is possible to transmit signals to spacecraft through the seeming void of Space – Space is not nothing. Nothing cannot transmit signals.   The universe has been designed for electromagnetic signalling.  A vacuum (such as Space) appears void, yet, as the Nobel Prizewinners mentioned in the Sciencedaily article below have now shown, this seeming void has been designed with transmission capability.

Extract from Science-Daily

Light Created from a Vacuum: Casimir Effect Observed in Superconducting Circuit

ScienceDaily (Nov. 18, 2011) — Scientists at Chalmers have succeeded in creating light from vacuum — observing an effect first predicted over 40 years ago. In an innovative experiment, the scientists have managed to capture some of the photons that are constantly appearing and disappearing in the vacuum.

The results have been published in the journal Nature.
The experiment is based on one of the most counterintuitive, yet, one of the most important principles in quantum mechanics: that vacuum is by no means empty nothingness. In fact, the vacuum is full of various particles that are continuously fluctuating in and out of existence. They appear, exist for a brief moment and then disappear again. Since their existence is so fleeting, they are usually referred to as virtual particles.
Chalmers scientist, Christopher Wilson and his co-workers have succeeded in getting photons to leave their virtual state and become real photons, i.e. measurable light. The physicist Moore predicted way back in 1970 that this should happen if the virtual photons are allowed to bounce off a mirror that is moving at a speed that is almost as high as the speed of light. The phenomenon, known as the dynamical Casimir effect, has now been observed for the first time in a brilliant experiment conducted by the Chalmers scientists.
“Since it’s not possible to get a mirror to move fast enough, we’ve developed another method for achieving the same effect,” explains Per Delsing, Professor of Experimental Physics at Chalmers. “Instead of varying the physical distance to a mirror, we’ve varied the electrical distance to an electrical short circuit that acts as a mirror for microwaves.”
The “mirror” consists of a quantum electronic component referred to as a SQUID (Superconducting quantum interference device), which is extremely sensitive to magnetic fields. By changing the direction of the magnetic field several billions of times a second the scientists were able to make the “mirror” vibrate at a speed of up to 25 percent of the speed of light.
“The result was that photons appeared in pairs from the vacuum, which we were able to measure in the form of microwave radiation,” says Per Delsing. “We were also able to establish that the radiation had precisely the same properties that quantum theory says it should have when photons appear in pairs in this way.”
What happens during the experiment is that the “mirror” transfers some of its kinetic energy to virtual photons, which helps them to materialize. According to quantum mechanics, there are many different types of virtual particles in vacuum, as mentioned earlier. Göran Johansson, Associate Professor of Theoretical Physics, explains that the reason why photons appear in the experiment is that they lack mass.
“Relatively little energy is therefore required in order to excite them out of their virtual state. In principle, one could also create other particles from vacuum, such as electrons or protons, but that would require a lot more energy.”
The scientists find the photons that appear in pairs in the experiment interesting to study in closer detail. They can perhaps be of use in the research field of quantum information, which includes the development of quantum computers.
However, the main value of the experiment is that it increases our understanding of basic physical concepts, such as vacuum fluctuations — the constant appearance and disappearance of virtual particles in vacuum. It is believed that vacuum fluctuations may have a connection with “dark energy” which drives the accelerated expansion of the universe. The discovery of this acceleration was recognised this year with the awarding of the nobel prize in physics.

There is a way.  Hence, “a way for the lightning of thunder”: and, “by what way is the light parted…?”, Job 38: 25,24.  Does that way have anything to do with the elusive, mysterious “dark matter”?

For an expanding (=everywhere inflating) universe to continue, its creation must have had, written into it, some constant, ongoing, sustaining action of the Divine, which constantly gives it form within the non-physical  dimension of Eternity.   Hence, all things are constantly upheld “by the word of his power”.  God himself, “bears  up the pillars of the Earth”, Ps.75:3.    This is why gravity ultimately is not definable from the properties of matter: it is an aspect of space/time, the sustenance of which is — God constantly in action.  When we look into the dark night sky, we are not looking at the darkness that was before time.  We are not looking into Eternity.  We are looking at the firmament, or expansion, which God created – with an ongoing action.  “I form the light, and create darkness”, Isa.45:7.  Note the present tense.  There is a parallel here to “I uphold the pillars thereof”, which is also present tense, describing an ongoing process which was activated at creation.  Thus, there is, scripturally, a link between darkness and gravity.  Here is something further in the present tense,  which interweaves the expanding universe, gravity, and the sky (firmament).  “He stretcheth out the north over the empty place, and hangeth the earth upon nothing” Job 26:7.  Note the present tense.  Space itself is a manifestation of a constantly maintained, expansive process.  Gravity, and the creation of darkness, are intertwined in the  expansion.  The elusive “dark matter” (whether it is matter or some unsuspected factor) is involved, because of its major gravitational significance.

Is there such a substance as ‘dark matter’?  You are asking the wrong person.  The Scriptures may or may not mention ‘dark matter’.  It depends upon one’s interpretation of the words.  Light was “divided” from “darkness” Gen.1:4.   Divided is a significant word suggestive of mathematical precision. It may have implications in Physics.  Perhaps the nearest to a possible direct confirmation of dark matter, is, Job 28:3: “He setteth an end to darkness, and searcheth out all perfection: the stones of darkness, and the shadow of death.”   If there are “stones” of physical “darkness”, then there is dark matter.  Stones have weight.  But, then – it’s not really matter that causes gravitational attraction – it’s something to do with space/time, and creation, itself.  “I uphold the pillars thereof…. .”

Whether or not ‘dark matter’ plays a part in ‘upholding the pillars thereof’, the upholding will cease on the last day.  Intuitively, with this much ‘dark matter’ about, it isn’t difficult to envisage the universe dismaterializing without warning.

We might give Sir Walter Scott the final word.

 That day of wrath, that dreadful day

When heaven and earth shall pass away:

What power shall be the sinner’s stay?

How shall we meet that dreadful day?

When, shriveling like a parched scroll,

The flaming heavens together roll,

When louder yet, and yet more dread,

Swells the high trump that wakes the dead.

Oh! On that day, that wrathful day,

When man to judgment wakes from clay,

Be thou, O Christ, the sinner’s stay.

Though heaven and earth shall pass away.

 
 
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